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MBA毕业论文_业海外研发投资的母国制度解释及其对创新绩效的影响研究PDF

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在“走出去”以及“创新驱动发展”战略的推动下,中国企业加速国际化步 伐,通过在海外开展研发投资活动,充分利用分散在世界各地的创新资源,正逐 步从研发全球化的“外围地带”变为重要的参与者和活动者,同时关于海外研发 投资的研究焦点也逐渐从欧美发达国家情境转移到以中国为代表的新兴经济国 家情境。基于这个研究背景,本文通过梳理、回顾与评价国内外已有文献,提出 以下三个递进的研究问题:(1)中国企业海外研发投资的母国制度解释:中国母 国制度因素会如何影响企业海外研发投资倾向与强度?(2)海外研发投资究竟 能否提升企业的创新绩效?(3)海外研发投资对企业创新绩效的内在影响关系 如何? 为了回答上述三个递进的研究问题,本文设计了以下三个子研究进行探讨, 具体如下: (1)子研究一主要应用制度理论,整合资源依赖理论,构建了区域层面的 正式、非正式制度与企业层面的政治关联影响企业海外研发投资倾向与强度的理 论模型,并通过中国制造业上市公司的大样本面板数据的Probit、Tobit模型以及 Heckman两阶段模型进行实证检验。结果显示,首先,中国的区域市场化制度质 量会显著促进企业的海外研发投资倾向与强度;区域企业家创新精神显著促进企 业海外研发投资倾向与强度,区域企业家创业精神虽不会影响企业海外研发投资 倾向,但会对企业海外研发投资强度产生积极影响;企业的政治关联会显著促进 企业海外研发投资倾向与强度。其次,企业的政治关联与区域制度的联合交互作 用会对企业海外研发投资倾向与强度产生消极影响,即企业政治关联与区域市场 化制度质量的交互作用消极影响企业海外研发投资倾向与强度;区域企业家创业 精神与政治关联的交互作用对海外研发投资倾向与强度有着消极影响;区域企业 浙江工业大学博士学位论文 II 家创新精神与政治关联的交互作用对海外研发投资倾向与强度有着消极影响。 (2)在子研究二中,针对当前关于海外研发投资影响企业创新绩效的不一 致结论,本文从知识基础观与组织学习等多个理论视角分析了海外研发投资对企 业创新的促进机理,同时从制度理论、经济地理等多个理论视角分析了海外研发 投资对企业创新的消极影响机理。并通过中国制造业大样本面板数据的计数模型 和倾向得分匹配模型进行实证检验。研究结果显示,从总体上来看,相对于没有 开展海外研发投资的企业,开展海外研发投资确实对中国企业创新绩效是有着显 著提升作用。 (3)子研究三则在子研究二的基础上,从制度理论、知识基础观、经济地 理、交易成本、信息处理理论等多个理论视角分析揭示了海外研发投资广度、强 度对企业创新绩效的非线性影响机理,同时引入企业吸收能力、投资区位组合和 制度距离三个因素对海外研发投资广度、强度与企业创新绩效的非线性关系的调 节效应,并通过中国制造业大样本面板数据的计数模型进行实证检验。结果表明, 首先,海外研发投资广度与企业创新绩效之间存在着倒U型曲线关系,即海外 研发投资广度对企业创新绩效存在一个阈值,当海外研发投资广度小于该值时, 随着广度的增加,企业边际创新绩效是提升的,当超过该阈值时,企业边际创新 绩效是下降的。其次,海外研发投资强度与企业创新绩效之间存在着U型曲线 关系,即海外研发投资强度对企业创新绩效也存在一个阈值,当海外研发投资强 度小于该值时,随着强度的增加,企业边际创新绩效是下降的,当超过该阈值时, 企业边际创新绩效开始提升。第三,企业吸收能力、投资区位组合对海外研发投 资广度、强度与企业创新绩效之间非线性关系有着积极的调节作用;制度(正式 制度与文化)距离对海外研发投资广度、强度与企业创新绩效之间非线性关系有 着消极的调节作用。 通过上述理论分析与实证研究,本研究主要在以下三个方面对国际商务与创 新管理的理论研究做出贡献。首先,拓展了制度理论的应用情境,为中国企业海 外研发投资前因解释提供了新的理论研究视角。第二,从广度与强度两个维度界 定了企业海外研发投资活动,并实证检验了这两个维度对企业创新绩效的非线性 影响关系,深化了海外研发投资的内涵,并拓展其结果的研究。第三,引入企业 企业海外研发投资的母国制度解释及其对创新绩效的影响研究 III 吸收能力、投资区位组合和制度距离三个因素在海外研发投资与企业创新绩效关 系中的影响分析,更好地识别了海外研发投资影响企业创新绩效的机制条件。同 时本研究可以在实践上可以为各级政府部门构建促进企业海外研发投资制度环 境提供借鉴意义,为企业高管从多角度权衡企业海外研发投资的分散程度与规模, 制定合理的海外研发投资战略提供指导。 关键词:海外研发;母国制度;制度距离;区位组合;创新绩效 浙江工业大学博士学位论文 IV Research on the Home Country Institutional Interpretation of Overseas R&D Investment and Its Influence on Innovation Performance ABSTRACT Driven by the strategy of “going out” and “innovation-driven development”,Chinese enterprises are accelerating the pace of internationalization.By conducting overseas R&D investment and making full use of innovative resources scattered around the world, Chinese enterprises are gradually becoming an important participant and activist from the “outer zone” of R&D globalization.At the same time, the research focus on overseas R&D investment has gradually shifted from the situation of developed countries in Europe and America to the situation of emerging economies represented by China.Based on this research background, this paper proposes the following three progressive research questions by combing, reviewing and evaluating existing literature:(1)How do China's domestic institutional factors affect the propensity and intensity of overseas R&D investment?(2)Can overseas R&D investment improve the innovation performance of enterprises?(3)What is the internal influence mechanism of overseas R&D investment on enterprise innovation performance? In order to answer the above three progressive research questions, the following three sub-studies are designed for discussion, which are as follows: (1)The first study main applied institutional theory,integrated resource dependence theory,this paper constructs a theoretical model that the formal and informal system at the regional level and the political connection at the enterprise 企业海外研发投资的母国制度解释及其对创新绩效的影响研究 V level affect the propensity and intensity of overseas R&D investment of enterprises.And through the Probit, Tobit model and Heckman two-stage model of large sample panel data of Chinese manufacturing listed companies, the empirical test is carried out.The results reveal,firstly, the quality of China's regional market-oriented institution significantly promote the propensity and intensity of enterprises' overseas R&D investment. The innovation spirit of regional entrepreneurs significantly promotes the propensity and intensity of enterprises' overseas R&D investment. Although the entrepreneurial spirit of regional entrepreneurs does not affect the propensity of enterprises' overseas R&D investment, it has a positive impact on the intensity of enterprises' overseas R&D investment. The political connection of enterprises will significantly promotes the propensity and intensity of overseas R&D investment.Secondly, the joint interaction between enterprise political connection and regional institution will have a negative impact on the propensity and intensity of enterprises' overseas R&D investment, that is, the interaction between enterprise political connection and the quality of regional market-oriented institution will negatively affect the propensity and intensity of enterprises' overseas R&D investment. The interaction between regional entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial spirit and political connection has a negative impact on the propensity and intensity of overseas R&D investment. The interaction between regional entrepreneurs' innovative spirit and political connection has a negative impact on the propensity and intensity of overseas R&D investment. (2)In the second study,in view of the current inconsistent conclusions about the impact of overseas R&D investment on corporate innovation performance, this paper analyzes the promotion mechanism of overseas R&D investment to enterprise innovation from the perspectives of knowledge base and organizational learning. At the same time, it analyzes the negative impact mechanism of overseas R&D investment on enterprise innovation from the perspectives of institutional theory, economic geography and organizational economics. And through the Chinese 浙江工业大学博士学位论文 VI manufacturing large sample panel data counting model and propensity score matching model for empirical testing. The research results show that, on the whole, Compared with enterprises without overseas R&D investment, overseas R&D investment does significantly improve the innovation performance of Chinese enterprises. (3)On the basis of second study,the three study reveals the non-linear influence mechanism of overseas R&D investment breadth and intensity on enterprise innovation performance from the perspectives of institutional theory, knowledge base view, economic geography, organizational economics, information processing theory,etc. At the same time,this paperexplored the moderating effect of three factors, namely, absorption capacity, investment location portfolio and institutional distance, on the non-linear relationship between breadth and intensity of overseas R&D investment and enterprise innovation performance.And through the Chinese manufacturing industry large sample panel data count model to carry on the empirical test.The result shows,firstly, there is an inverted u-shaped relationship between the breadth of overseas R&D investment and the innovation performance of enterprises,that is, there is a threshold for the impact of overseas R&D investment breadth on enterprise innovation performance,When the breadth of overseas R&D investment is less than this value, as the breadth increases, the marginal innovation performance of the enterprise is improved. When the threshold is exceeded, the marginal innovation performance of the enterprise is declining.Secondly, there is a U-shaped curve relationship between overseas R&D investment intensity and enterprises innovation performance,that is, there is also a threshold for the impact of overseas R&D investment intensity on enterprises innovation performance,When the intensity of overseas R&D investment is less than this value, the marginal innovation performance of enterprises decreases with the increase of the intensity. When the intensity exceeds this threshold, the marginal innovation performance of enterprises begins to improve.Thirdly, the absorption capacity and investment location portfolio of enterprises have a positive moderating effect on the non-linear relationship between 企业海外研发投资的母国制度解释及其对创新绩效的影响研究 VII the breadth and intensity of overseas R&D investment and the innovation performance of enterprises. Institutional (formal institutional and cultural) distance has a negative moderating effect on the non-linear relationship between the breadth and intensity of overseas R&D investment and the innovation performance of enterprises. Through the above theoretical analysis and empirical research, this study mainly makes contributions to the theoretical research of international business and innovation management in the following three aspects.Firstly, this paper expands the application context of the institutional theory and provides a new theoretical research perspective for the interpretation of the prefactors of Chinese enterprises' overseas R&D investment.Secondly, this paper defines the overseas R&D investment activities of enterprises from the two dimensions of breadth and intensity, and empirically tests the non-linear influence relationship between these two dimensions on the innovation performance of enterprises, and deepens the research on the results of overseas R&D investment.Thirdly, the analysis of the moderating impacts of the three factors of enterprise absorptive capacity, investment location combination and institutional distance on the relationship between overseas R&D investment and corporate innovation performance has better identified the Mechanism conditions for overseas R&D investment to influence the innovation performance of enterprises.In practice, this papert can provide reference significance for government departments at all levels to build institutional environment for promoting enterprises' overseas R&D investment, and provide guidance for enterprise executives to balance the degree and scale of diversification of enterprises' overseas R&D investment from multiple perspectives, so as to formulate reasonable overseas R&D investment strategies. KEY WORDS:overseas R&D; home country institution; institutional distance; location portfolio; innovation performance 浙江工业大学博士学位论文 VIII 目录 摘要 ... I ABSTRACT .................. IV 目录 ............................ VIII 图目录 ........................... XI 表目录 .......................... XII 1 绪论 ............................. 1 1.1 研究背景............ 1 1.1.1 现实背景 .............................. 1 1.1.2 理论背景 .............................. 3 1.2 研究问题的提出 5 1.3 研究设计............ 7 1.3.1 研究目标 7 1.3.2 研究内容 7 1.3.3 技术路线 8 1.3.4 研究方法............................. 10 1.4 研究创新点...... 11 1.5 论文结构安排.. 12 2 文献综述 ..................... 14 2.1 样本文献说明.. 14 2.2 研究程序.......... 15 2.3 文献分析与评价............................. 15 2.3.1 论文发表时间分布............. 15 2.3.2 期刊分布............................. 16 2.3.3 主要贡献作者评价............. 16 2.3.4 文献共被引网络分析......... 18 2.3.5 关键词共词网络分析......... 26 2.4 主要研究主题与理论基础............. 29 2.4.1 海外研发投资战略:动机与驱动因素、区位和进入模式 ............. 29 2.4.2 海外研发投资与企业成长:资源/知识与海外组织学习 ............. 35 2.4.3 海外研发投资的组织:结构、网络及其演化 37 2.4.4 海外研发投资的结果:创新绩效、财务绩效与生产率等........... 40 2.4.5 制度理论在海外研发投资研究中的应用........ 45 2.5 文献评述.......... 47 企业海外研发投资的母国制度解释及其对创新绩效的影响研究 IX 2.6 本章小结.......... 48 3 子研究一:母国区域制度、政治关联与企业海外研发投资 .............................. 49 3.1 引言与相关研究评述..................... 49 3.2 理论基础与研究假设..................... 53 3.2.1 制度理论............................. 53 3.2.2 区域市场化制度与企业海外研发投资............ 54 3.2.3 区域企业家精神与企业海外研发投资............ 56 3.2.4 政治关联与企业海外研发投资........................ 57 3.2.5 区域市场化制度、政治关联的交互作用与企业海外研发投资... 59 3.3 研究设计.......... 60 3.3.1 样本说明............................. 60 3.3.2 模型设定............................. 61 3.3.3 变量定义与测量................. 62 3.4 实证结果分析.. 65 3.4.1 描述性统计与相关性矩阵. 65 3.4.2 回归结果分析..................... 68 3.4.3 稳健性检验......................... 73 3.5 本章小结.......... 77 4 子研究二:海外研发投资提升企业创新绩效了么? ........... 79 4.1 引言.................. 79 4.2 海外研发投资影响企业创新的机理分析.................... 80 4.2.1 海外研发投资对企业创新的促进效应............ 80 4.2.2 海外研发投资对企业创新的消极影响............ 82 4.3 研究设计.......... 83 4.3.1 样本说明............................. 83 4.3.2 模型设定............................. 83 4.3.3 变量定义与测量................. 86 4.4 实证结果分析.. 89 4.4.1 描述性统计与相关性矩阵. 89 4.4.2 回归结果分析..................... 91 4.4.3 倾向得分匹配(PSM)结果分析.................... 92 4.5 本章小结.......... 95 5 子研究三:海外研发投资对企业创新绩效的影响机制 ....... 97 5.1 引言.................. 97 5.2 理论与研究假设............................. 98 浙江工业大学博士学位论文 X 5.2.1 海外研发投资广度与企业创新绩效................ 98 5.2.2 海外研发投资强度与创新绩效........................ 99 5.2.3 企业吸收能力的调节作用.............................. 101 5.2.4 投资区位组合的调节作用.............................. 102 5.2.5 制度距离的调节作用....... 102 5.3 研究设计........ 105 5.3.1 样本说明........................... 105 5.3.2 模型设定........................... 105 5.3.3 变量定义与测量............... 106 5.4 实证结果分析 108 5.4.1 描述性统计与相关性矩阵.............................. 108 5.4.2 回归结果分析................... 110 5.5 本章小结........ 120 6 结论与展望 ............... 122 6.1 主要结论........ 122 6.2 理论贡献........ 124 6.3 实践启示........ 125 6.4 研究局限性与未来展望............... 126。。。。。。以下内容略