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城市生活垃圾焚烧的环境保护可行性研究-以延吉市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂为例

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内容简介
众所周知,随着社会发展,城市生活垃圾数量的不断增加,垃圾已日益成为一个污 染环境、困扰人类的社会问题。而为了贯彻可持续发展战略,就必须对城市生活垃圾进 行减量化、资源化、无害化处理。 国内外当前生活垃圾处理技术主要有四类:卫生填埋处理技术、焚烧处理技术、高 温堆肥处理技术和回收利用处理技术。由于焚烧处理技术具有无害化效果好、减量化程 度高、资源化较便捷和占地面积小等优点,所以在四类处理技术中采用该技术的比例呈 上升趋势。 随着我国改革开放的不断深入和扩大,社会、经济发展较快,为发展焚烧处理技术 提供了较好的经济支撑。随着人民生活质量的不断改善,生活垃圾的组分发生了变化, 热值不断提高,为生活垃圾的焚烧处理提供了较好的物质基础。因此,近年来在大中城 市相继建设了生活垃圾焚烧发电厂,还有一部分城市的焚烧处理厂尚处在规划、计划、 设计、施工的不同阶段。 但在一方面大力提倡发展生活垃圾焚烧处理技术的同时,另一方面又面临着垃圾焚 烧处理过程中所带来的二次污染,并可能产生二噁英等问题。本文对生活垃圾焚烧处理 的优缺点进行了总结,并通过对生活垃圾焚烧工艺流程的各个环节中产生的主要问题进 行分析,结合延吉市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂实例研究,环境对生活垃圾焚烧发电的环境保 护可行性进行了分析,并给出了结论和建议。 关键词:城市生活垃圾、焚烧、环境保护II Abstract It is well known that ,with the development of the society the quantity Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incineration has been increasing and the trash also has becoming a social problem of destroying environment and puzzling the humanity. In order to implement the sustainable development strategy, we must deal MSW with some processing ways of decrease、resource and the harmlessness. There are four main lives garbage disposal technologies in the domestic and the foreign country at present: the healthy burying technology, the incineration, the high temperature composting technology and the recycle –using technology. Because the incineration has many good effects for example the better purpose with harmless, the high degree of reduction, the more convenient environmental and the smaller occupational area and so on therefore , the proportion of the uses of this technology in these four kinds has been on the rising tendency. With the unceasing penetration and the expansion of our country's reformation, the society, the economics develop well which provides the better economical strut for development of incineration technology Along with the unceasing improvement of the people lived quality, the component of MSW has changed, the calorific value unceasingly increasing, providing a better material base for life trash incineration. Therefore, in recent years many cities has constructed Power Plan of MSW incineration,and Some cities are still in different stage of occupying, planning, designing and constructing. But on the one hand , vigorously advocates developing processing technology of MSW incineration, on the other hand, we still faces again another pollution of MSW incineration which is brought in the treating processes, and also may make the problem of dioxins .This article summarizes the merit and shortages of burning processing of MSW incineration, and through the analysis on the main environmental questions of MSW incineration which are in each link of the technical process, combining with the example research of MSW incineration in Yan ji city analysis the feasibility of generation electricity of MSW incineration in environmental protection, and give the conclusion and suggestions Key words: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), incineration, Environmental protectionIII 目 录 摘要.................................................................................................................I ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................II 第一章 引 言….1 1.1 基本概念 ...................................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 城市生活垃圾....................................................................................... 1 1.1.2 焚烧 ........................................................................................................ 1 1.2 国内外生活垃圾焚烧技术的发展现状.....................................................3 1.2.1 国外生活垃圾焚烧技术的发展现状..................................................3 1.2.2 国内生活垃圾焚烧技术的应用现状.................................................... 3 1.3 研究理论和方法.........................................................................................4 1.3.1 研究理论 ................................................................................................ 4 1.3.2 主要研究方法........................................................................................ 4 第二章 生活垃圾焚烧发电技术的优缺点分析. 5 2.1 城市生活垃圾焚烧发电技术的优点.........................................................5 2.2 城市生活垃圾焚烧发电技术的局限性.....................................................7 第三章 城市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂的工艺流程及产生环境污染的主要环节 9 3.1 城市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂的工艺流程.....................................................9 3.2 城市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂的产污环节.....................................................9 第四章 实证研究—城市生活垃圾焚烧处理环境保护可行性分析.............11IV 4.1 延吉市生活垃圾成分分析.......................................................................11 4.2 延吉市生活垃圾焚烧过程中的产污环节分析.......................................12 4.2.1 运输过程中的散落垃圾、煤尘和其它大气污染.............................. 12 4.2.2 生活垃圾贮存过程中的恶臭污染...................................................... 13 4.2.3 烟气污染 .............................................................................................. 13 4.2.4 废水 ...................................................................................................... 17 4.2.5 噪声 ...................................................................................................... 19 4.2.6 固体废弃物 .......................................................................................... 20 第五章 结论与建议 .........................................................................................22 5.1 结论.........................................................................................................22 5.2 建议:.....................................................................................................22